Archive for July, 2010

A Brief Guide To 21 English Bible Translations

There are so many translations available today that it can be quite confusing? Which are the best ones? Are some inaccurate? Is “older” always better?” Or maybe “newer” is preferred!

I’ve tried to summarize twenty-one of the most popular ones below. (There are many others out there.) I’ve also included some editorial comments from time to time that may point out strengths and weaknesses. I hope this is a help to you. God bless you as you study His Word!

1. Amplified Bible (AMP)

The Amplified Bible was the first Bible project of The Lockman Foundation. It attempts to take both word meaning and context into account in order to accurately translate the original text from one language into another. The Amplified Bible does this through the use of explanatory alternate readings and amplifications to assist the reader in understanding what Scripture really says. Multiple English word equivalents to each key Hebrew and Greek word clarify and amplify meanings that may otherwise have been concealed by the traditional translation method.

2. American Standard Version (ASV)

Published in 1901, the American Standard Version was produced as a revision to the King James Version.

3. Contemporary English Version (CEV)

Uncompromising simplicity marked the American Bible Society’s translation of the Contemporary English Version Bible that was first published in 1995. The text is easily read by grade schoolers, second language readers, and those who prefer the more contemporized form. The CEV is not a paraphrase. It is an accurate and faithful translation of the original manuscripts.

4. Darby Translation (DARBY)

First published in 1890 by John Nelson Darby, an Anglo-Irish Bible teacher associated with the early years of the Plymouth Brethren. Darby also published translations of the Bible in French and German.

5. English Standard Version (ESV)

The English Standard Version stands in the classic mainstream of English Bible translations over the past half-millennium. In that stream, faithfulness to the text and vigorous pursuit of accuracy were combined with simplicity, beauty, and dignity of expression. Our goal has been to carry forward this legacy for a new century.

To this end each word and phrase in the ESV has been carefully weighed against the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, to ensure the fullest accuracy and clarity and to avoid under-translating or overlooking any nuance of the original text. The words and phrases themselves grow out of the Tyndale-King James legacy, and most recently out of the RSV, with the 1971 RSV text providing the starting point for our work.

[EDITOR’S NOTE: Even though many conservative scholars have found inaccuracies in the orginal RSV, those problems were corrected in the ESV translation. It is one of the best modern translations available today.]

6. Good News Translation (GNT)

The Good News Translation, formerly called the Good News Bible or Today’s English Version was first published as a full Bible in 1976 by the American Bible Society as a “common language” Bible. It is a clear and simple modern translation that is faithful to the original Hebrew, Koine Greek and Aramaic texts. The GNT is a highly-trusted version.

7. Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)

The Bible is God’s inspired word, inerrant in the original manuscripts. It is the only means of knowing God’s plan of salvation and His will for our lives. It is the only hope and answer for a rebellious, searching world. Bible translation, both a science and an art, is a bridge that brings God’s word from the ancient world to the world today.

8. King James Version (KJV)

In 1604, King James I of England authorized that a new translation of the Bible into English be started. It was finished in 1611, just 85 years after the first translation of the New Testament into English appeared (Tyndale, 1526). The Authorized Version, or King James Version, quickly became the standard for English-speaking Protestants.

9. 21st Century King James Version (KJ21)

The 21st Century King James Version of the Holy Bible (KJ21®) is an updating of the 1611 King James Version (KJV). It is not a new translation, but a careful updating to eliminate obsolete words by reference to the most complete and definitive modern American dictionary, the Webster’s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, unabridged. Spelling, punctuation, and capitalization have also been updated.

What has been historically known as Biblical English has been retained in this updating. It is readily distinguished from the colloquial language of commerce and the media used in contemporary Bible translations.

All language relating to gender and theology in the King James Version remains unchanged from the original.

10. The Message (MSG)

Why was The Message written? The best answer to that question comes from Eugene Peterson himself: “While I was teaching a class on Galatians, I began to realize that the adults in my class weren’t feeling the vitality and directness that I sensed as I read and studied the New Testament in its original Greek. Writing straight from the original text, I began to attempt to bring into English the rhythms and idioms of the original language. I knew that the early readers of the New Testament were captured and engaged by these writings and I wanted my congregation to be impacted in the same way. I hoped to bring the New Testament to life for two different types of people: those who hadn’t read the Bible because it seemed too distant and irrelevant and those who had read the Bible so much that it had become ‘old hat.'”

11. New American Standard Bible (NASB)

While preserving the literal accuracy of the 1901 ASV, the New American Stand Bible has sought to render grammar and terminology in contemporary English. Special attention has been given to the rendering of verb tenses to give the English reader a rendering as close as possible to the sense of the original Greek and Hebrew texts. This translation has earned the reputation of being the most accurate English Bible translation.

12. The NET Bible (NET)

The NET Bible is a completely new translation of the Bible with 60,932 translators’ notes! It was completed by more than 25 scholars – experts in the original biblical languages – who worked directly from the best currently available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts.

13. New Century Version (NCV)

This translation of God’s Word was made from the original Hebrew and Greek languages. The translation team was composed of the World Bible Translation Center and fifty additional, highly qualified and experienced Bible scholars and translators. Some had translation experience on the New International Version, the New American Standard, and the New King James Versions. The third edition of the United Bible Societies’ Greek text, the latest edition of Biblia Hebraica and the Septuagint were among texts used.

14. New International Version (NIV)

The New International Version is a translation made by more than one hundred scholars working from the best available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. It was conceived in 1965 when, after several years of study by committees from the Christian Reformed Church and the National Association of Evangelicals, a trans-denominational and international group of scholars met at Palos Heights, Illinois, and agreed on the need for a new translation in contemporary English.

15. New International Reader’s Version (NIrV)

The New International Reader’s Version is a new Bible version based on the New International Version (NIV). The NIV is easy to understand and very clear. More people read the NIV than any other English Bible. We made the NIrV even easier to read and understand. We used the words of the NIV when we could. Sometimes we used shorter words. We explained words that might be hard to understand. We made the sentences shorter.

We did some other things to make the NIrV a helpful Bible version for you. For example, sometimes a Bible verse quotes from another place in the Bible. When that happens, we put the other Bible book’s name, chapter and verse right there. We separated each chapter into shorter sections. We gave a title to almost every chapter. Sometimes we even gave a title to the shorter sections. That will help you understand what each chapter or section is all about.

16. New Jerusalem Bible (NJB)

The New Jerusalem Bible is a 1985 revision of the older Jerusalem Bible (JB). The JB was translated from the original languages, but it developed out of a popular French translation done in Jerusalem, which is why it was called the Jerusalem Bible. The NJB, like the JB before it, is known for its literary qualities. While the JB tended to more meaning-based (or functional equivalent), the NJB has moved toward more of a word-based (or formal equivalent) translation.

17. New King James Version (NKJV)

Commissioned in 1975 by Thomas Nelson Publishers, 130 respected Bible scholars, church leaders, and lay Christians worked for seven years to create a completely new, modern translation of Scripture, yet one that would retain the purity and stylistic beauty of the original King James Version. With unyielding faithfulness to the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts, the translatiors applies the most recent research in archaelology, linguistics, and textual studies.

18. New Living Translation (NLT)

The goal of any Bible translation is to convey the meaning of the ancient Hebrew and Greek texts as accurately as possible to the modern reader. The New Living Translation is based on the most recent scholarship in the theory of translation. The challenge for the translators was to create a text that would make the same impact in the life of modern readers that the original text had for the original readers. In the New Living Translation, this is accomplished by translating entire thoughts (rather than just words) into natural, everyday English. The end result is a translation that is easy to read and understand and that accurately communicates the meaning of the original text.

19. New Revised Standard Version (NSRV)

The NRSV translation has been rightly labeled “An Ecumenical Edition,” that has been widely used by both Protestant and Catholic worshippers since 1990.

20. Revised Standard Version (RSV)

Published in 1952, the Revised Standard Version of the Bible is an authorized revision of the American Standard Version. It seeks to preserve all that is best in the English Bible as it has been known and used through the years. It is intended for use in public and private worship, not merely for reading and instruction. [EDITOR’S NOTE: Many conservative scholars have found inaccuracies in the translation work in the RSV.]

21. Today’s New International Version (TNIV)

The Today’s New International Version is a thoroughly accurate, fully trustworthy Bible text built on the rich heritage of the New International Version (NIV). In fact, this contemporary language version incorporates the continuing work of the Committee on Bible Translation (CBT), the translators of the NIV, since the NIV’s last update in 1984.

In translating the NIV, the CBT held to certain goals: that it be an Accurate, Beautiful, Clear, and Dignified translation suitable for public and private reading, teaching, preaching, memorizing, and liturgical use. The translators were united in their commitment to the authority and infallibility of the Bible as God’s Word in written form. They agreed that faithful communication of the meaning of the original writers demands frequent modifications in sentence structure (resulting in a “thought-for-thought” translation) and constant regard for the contextual meanings of words.

Glenn Christianson

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Posted by mark - July 20, 2010 at 7:08 pm

Categories: Conservative Studies   Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Obama addresses health care at Downtown convention : Michael Macagnone

President Barack Obama stressed the importance of health care reform and worker protection to preserve the United States’ future in an address he gave yesterday at a convention Downtown.

Obama spoke for less than half an hour in front of several thousand people at the David Lawrence Convention Center for the AFL-CIO, a national and international network of labor unions. Its annual convention also featured Sens. Bob Casey,D-Pa., and Arlen Specter, D-Pa.

Health care was a major issue in the speech, during which Obama reiterated the main points of his plan for reform.

“It will offer insurance to Americans who don’t. And it will slow the growth of health care costs for our families, our businesses and our government,” Obama said.

The plan requires all U.S. citizens to have health insurance, and all employers would be required to provide insurance for their employees. People with lower incomes and most businesses that are too small to provide insurance would be exempted.

Uninsured Americans would be able to buy a “public option” health insurance program that would be government-subsidized or shop among the various insurance companies, Obama said.

The proposed plan will cost $900 billion over the next 10 years, and the money would come from portions of Medicare spending that are wasteful, Obama said.

“I will not sign a bill that adds a dime to our deficits, either now or in the future,” he said.

Obama said he wants to strengthen the labor movement in the United States in order to protect and further the middle class.
“Labor is not part of the problem, labor is part of the solution,” he said.

Older anti-labor union executive orders have been reversed and have been replaced by newer ones meant to reintroduce protection for unions, Obama said.

He wants to introduce economic reform that revitalizes the U.S. middle class and expressed support for the Employee Free Choice Act.

The Employee Free Choice Act allows for faster certification of unions, changes laws that govern union-employer negotiation and makes punishments for employers that break labor laws tougher.

A recent census report stated that, before the economic downturn, family income in 2008 was the lowest in the past 10 years, Obama said.

“That’s unacceptable. And I refuse to let America go back to the culture of irresponsibility that made it possible — back to an economy with soaring CEO salaries and shrinking middle class incomes, back to the days when banks made reckless decisions that hurt Wall Street and Main Street alike,” Obama said.

AFL-CIO President John Sweeney introduced Obama with soaring praise.

“Today the White House is the people’s house. Our labor movement is proud of our president,” Sweeney said.

Applause thundered through the cavernous convention center when the president first appeared on the two jumbo screens that winged the stage.

Delegates waved signs reading “Jobs Now” and “Health care now” as the audience rose to give its first of several standing ovations.

One woman in the crowd shouted to the president, “I love you, Obama!”

The majority of the AFL-CIO has voted to support a single-payer system of economic reform.

Richard Bloomingdale, secretary-treasurer of the Pennsylvania AFL-CIO said, “We’d all love to see a single-payer system. The problem is what is politically possible at this time.”

In a single-payer system, all medical expenses are paid by a government or government-related source.

Specter, who spoke before Obama, mentioned a plan to build a high-speed train to run between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia for which Congress recently earmarked $25 million. The train is part of a larger plan to revitalize Pennsylvania, said Specter.

“We’re looking to create jobs at every turn and get Pennsylvania moving again,” Specter said.

Chad
http://www.articlesbase.com/insurance-articles/obama-addresses-health-care-at-downtown-convention-michael-macagnone-1242322.html

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Posted by mark - July 17, 2010 at 3:21 pm

Categories: Government Reform   Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Insolvency And Corparate Bankruptcy In China

Insolvency

China’s insolvency regime is still developing. Insolvency remains a particularly sensitive issue in China because there many technically insolvent state-owned enterprises and financial institutions, forcing China to choose between economic inefficiency and mass lay-offs that could disrupt social stability.

Commencement of Insolvency Action

Both voluntary and involuntary actions are available (instituted by the debtor or a creditor, respectively). An insolvency action begins with an application in the People’s Court for a declaration of insolvency; the applicant must show that the debtor is unable to repay its debts as they come due. A declaration of insolvency will stay all other proceedings against the debtor company, but usually requires the company to suspend its business operations.

Notification

The People’s Court will notify creditors of the commencement of insolvency procedures by either written notice or public announcement. Creditors notified by written notice must claim their rights within 30 days of the date of receipt, and creditors who have not received written notice have three months from the public announcement to claim their rights. Missing these deadlines will extinguish the creditor’s claims.

Property

All property either owned by the company at the date of the insolvency declaration or thereafter acquired is available for distribution to creditors, including intellectual property, real estate, equity investments and property recovered from a voidable transaction. This property is usually liquidated through auction.

Voidable Transactions

Certain acts of an SOE are deemed invalid if they are committed any time from six months prior to the court’s acceptance of the insolvency petition to the date of the insolvency declaration (or committed by an FIE within 180 days prior to the commencement of liquidation):

* Sale of property at substantially below market value

* Concealment, secret distributions, or gifts of property

* Surrender of claims as a creditor

* Provision of security for previously unsecured debt

* Repayment of debts prior to maturity

Distribution Priority

Claims must usually be paid in the following order (although in some jurisdictions employee claims outrank even secured creditors):

1. Secured creditors

2. Insolvency expenses

3. Employee wages and unpaid social security payments

4. Outstanding taxes

5. Unsecured creditors

Corporate Bankruptcy Law

China recently adopted a new Corporate Bankruptcy Law to replace the provisional Enterprise Bankruptcy Law that has been in place since 1986, marking a major advance in its corporate bankruptcy system. The law will go into effect on June 1, 2007. This law clarifies the bankruptcy issues of financial organizations, balances the rights and interests labor and guarantee creditors, and redefines the liquidation order in enterprise bankruptcy. China’s New Corporate Bankruptcy Law has been badly needed for quite some time, as the development of China’s market economy has naturally resulted in increasing bankruptcies, especially in the state-owned sector.

The law covers all corporate entities including state-owned enterprises, private domestically funded enterprises, and foreign invested enterprises. Perhaps its most praiseworthy feature is a reorganization system to allow ailing enterprises to avoid bankruptcy. It also deals admirably with cross-border bankruptcy issues, and stipulates specific procedures for the handling of debt issues. It offers meaningful guaranteed property rights for mortgage holders, etc., and offers priority to mortgage holders, etc. over staff creditors such as unpaid employees, etc.(unfortunately, state-owned enterprises will not be subject to this rule before the end of 2008 at the earliest). Finally, it arranges for professionalized management of the liquidation process (instead of management by unpaid local government officials who frequently bungle the liquidation).

David Carnes
http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/insolvency-and-corparate-bankruptcy-in-china-76672.html

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Posted by mark - July 12, 2010 at 12:19 am

Categories: Rule of Law   Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

9 Foot Shuffle Board Game Room Set Critical Overview

When you catch yourself wistfully thinking about shuffleboard, you’ll find that there is a good chance that you have lots of good associations that go with it. For instance, you are going to discover that shuffleboard is a game that is often played on board cruise ships and at the best of the breezy resorts, but you will also find that with a little bit of time and effort that you can bring this pleasure home with you!

More and more people are realizing that the joy of shuffleboard, the relaxing quality of the game along with the pleasant associations that go along with it, can be brought home with them, and this is where you will realize how the importance of the 9 Foot Shuffle Board Game Room Set comes in.

To really get a good feel for what the 9 Foot Shuffle Board Game Room Set can do for you, you will find that you need to think about the most relaxing tropical vacation that you ever took, or ever wanted to take. Think about not having a thing to do and being able to follow any whim because you are on vacation.

You don’t owe your time to anyone, and perhaps for the first time in years, you’ll find that you can stop and have a a great game of shuffleboard with some good Shuffle Board Equipment with a friend or loved one as often as you like! This is the kind of leisure that a lot of people associate with shuffleboard; it’s fun for the young and the old, and you’ll find that it can help you recreate old memories or that it can help you come up with new ones!

With that in mind, you are going to find that there are a number of different options in front of you, but that the 9 Foot Shuffle Board Game Room Set is a Shuffle Board Table that you should definitely consider. For instance, you’ll find that while you really might not be able to head off on a tropical cruise whenever you want to, this Shuffle Board Court Game is perfect for home use.

You can bring home a little bit of that piece of mind with you, and you’ll find that if you are looking to get beginners into this terrific game that this is great Shuffle Board Equipment to do it with. The construction is quite sturdy, and you can expect years and years of reliable and dependable surface. You are looking at a beautifully elegant top of kiln-dried rock maple and the markings on this wonderfully sensuous surface have been applied with silk screening before being covered with seven coats of lacquer.

Chances are, you are more than a little bit disappointed that you can’t take the tropics home with you, but don’t worry. One of the best ways to recapture your island paradise is to bring some of the activities home with you, and this is a great way to do it. Take some time and really consider how the 9 Foot Shuffle Board Game Room Set can serve you, and practice for your next vacation!

Brian Garvin
http://www.articlesbase.com/sports-and-fitness-articles/9-foot-shuffle-board-game-room-set-critical-overview-687028.html

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Posted by mark - July 3, 2010 at 3:54 pm

Categories: Critical Thinking   Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , ,