Founding Fathers

Religion and the Constitution, Dr. LBaldwin4

Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Religion and the United States Constitution, with Dr. LBaldwin, Professor of Religion @ Vanderbilt University, and one of the foremost authorities on religion and the constitution, talks about some of the challenges faced by the founding fathers when they dealt with the issue of freedom and religion, and how the Declaration of Independence set the stage for the religious freedoms Americans enjoy today,Part 4,
I need your support to continue this site. Send me a donation at or write me at James Haney, P.O. Box 591, Mt. Juliet, Tennessee, 37121-0591. I appreciate any help you can give, drjhaney

Duration : 5 min 35 sec

Read more…

18 comments - What do you think?
Posted by mark - July 11, 2015 at 6:12 am

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

Is it absurd to literally apply the Constitution to situations the founding fathers could not have envisioned?

Many people like to say they are for strict interpretation of the Constitution. Fine. However, there are many problems, issues, and situations that aren’t directly dealt with by the Constitution and/or were in fact totally inconceivable to the founding fathers.

For example, the internet. While it certainly affects interstate commerce and thus the Constitution would say that Congress has the power to regulate it, is that really what the founding fathers intended? How could we possibly know what they would have wanted or if they would have written the Constitution the same way if they had taken that into account?

Why should we assume the wisdom of a document at face value in any situation when the realities it is applied to could not have been predicted by its makers?

"Why should we assume the wisdom of a document at face value in any situation when the realities it is applied to could not have been predicted by its makers?

It’s not a question of the wisdom of the document. Interpretation is part of law. You can’t have a constitution without interpreting it. The idea is common law:

Common law refers to law developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals (called case law), rather than through legislative statutes or executive action, and to corresponding legal systems that rely on precedential case law.

The Founders understood it well. It is what gives the judicial branch its power.

A constitutional scholar chimes in:

"The constitution does not give the government the power to regulate our markets."

Read section 8 of the US Constitution.

"Just like it didn’t give us the right to invade Iraq…"

Section 8 again. Powers of Congress. They voted to give
Bush the power to declare war. It was constitutional. not smart, but constitutional.

Ruth, I like your post but I have one problem with it:

Section 8 again Powers of Congress:

"To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;"

52 comments - What do you think?
Posted by mark - July 7, 2015 at 4:46 am

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

The Return Of The Police: Sting, Summers And Copeland Are Back!

The Police reunited for an appearance on the 2007 Grammy Awards Show. Anyone familiar with Sting, Andy Summers and Stewart Copeland knew that a Grammy Awards Show would never be reason enough for the original band members to come together and suddenly decide to perform on television. It was obvious that this was some kind of reintroduction to the band. That suspicion was confirmed a day later when a press conference was held in Los Angeles to announce that tickets would soon be available for an upcoming tour. A group known for surprising the media, their fans and sometimes even themselves, had done so handily. It was that way since the beginning.

The original band was formed by Stewart Copeland as a trio that became a foursome sometime in the spring of 1977. By early summer, Strontium 90 appeared on the scene as a reinvented version of the same group. After having undergone some personnel shifts and adjustments, the band members were Sting, Stewart Copeland, Andy Summers and Henry Padovani. As Strontium 90, the band recorded a few demo tracks, played gigs in London and Paris and worked on perfecting their sound. Sometime in the summer of 1977 they began calling themselves The Police, a name originally chosen by Stewart Copeland.

Looking to get their sound on vinyl, The Police tried laying down some studio tracks in late July of 1977 with the help of music producer John Cale, a Welsh musician and one of the founding members of The Velvet Underground. The recording sessions went nowhere and revealed that Henry Padovani lacked the guitar skills needed to keep up with the others. As a result, Padovani left the band in early August. By the fall of 1977, The Police became the threesome of Sting, Summers and Copeland that we know so well. The trio with a unique sound bigger than the band was tailor made for the small clubs and venues of England’s Punk and new wave music scene. As a result, they became popular with British Fans.

After giving the recording studio another try, The Police had better luck. Roxanne was released as a single in early 1978. Can’t Stand Losing You, So Lonely and their first album, Outlandos d’Amour, followed later that year. Through a deal brokered by Stewart Copeland’s brother, Miles, A&M Records signed The Police to a recording contract and released Outlandos d’Amour in the USA.

In 1979, the band toured the USA to support their newly released singles and the first album. The press loved to describe them as three guys from England with bleached blond hair playing rocked up Jamaican Rebel Music driving around the USA in a cannibalized, overdue rental van filled with stolen instruments.

The blond hair was actually the result of a commercial they did to earn some quick money. Afterward, they decided to stay with the look. The trio did drive around from gig to gig in a leased Ford Cargo Van that had seen better days and was long past the original return date. The van contained ‘borrowed’ instruments and equipment. Actually, according to statements made by the band members during that time, they rented the instruments in New York City for a club date and forgot to return them until their tour was finished. It’s said the band made good on the extra charges for the van and instruments.

Their second album, Regatta De Blanc, was released in the fall of 1979. Walking on the Moon and Message in a Bottle received a huge amount of airplay and helped fill most of their shows to overflowing. In November of 1979, I was lucky enough to squeeze into My Father’s Place on Long Island to watch an amazing performance by The Police. The event was simulcast on WLIR, Long Island’s New Music Radio Station at that time. A friend later provided me with an audiocassette of the performance. I wore that cassette out.

The third album by The Police, Zenyatta Mondatta, was released in October of 1980. The record hit number one in the UK and number five in the USA against tough competition which included AC/DC, Pink Floyd, the Rolling Stones, John Lennon, Queen and Bruce Springsteen to name a few. Songs like Driven To Tears and Don’t Stand So Close To Me could be heard playing constantly on the radio. Despite all that radio play, people didn’t tire of their sound and always seemed to want more.

Sting’s newly acquired Star Power as the band front man, an actor and solo musician in his own right gave him a constant edge over Steward Copeland. Copeland was his most vocal critic in the band and the two actually got into fistfights on several occasions. It probably didn’t help that managers, concert promoters, publicity agents and record companies all knew there would be no Police or paycheck without Sting and likely took his side on many issues. That must have driven Copeland nuts. Despite the infighting, the band members were still able to agree enough at that time to get down to business and move the band forward.

In 1981, just one year after their third album was released, their fourth album hit the stores. Ghost in the Machine flew to a ranking of number one in the UK and number two in the USA. Spirits In The Material World, Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic and Invisible Sun captured the imagination of fans and were placed in constant rotation on radio stations from coast to coast in the USA. These songs proved that the band could make occasional changes in their sound without evolving away from their fan base as others had.

In 1983, the band released Synchronicity, their fifth and final album to date. It reached number one in the UK and number one in the USA. The album won the group several Grammy Awards and lots of critical acclaim. Songs like Every Breath You Take, King of Pain and Wrapped Around Your Finger became instant favorites that crossed over musical formats and received a huge amount of airplay. Synchronicity II became a favorite song of rock and new music disc jockeys. Today, that album is considered a classic and much beloved by most fans and music critics.

Without an official announcement and with little fanfare, The Police went their separate ways when the Synchronicity Tour finally ended in the spring of 1984. Because of all the albums sold, concerts performed, airplay received and media attention during that last tour, most fans probably felt the band members were just taking a well-deserved break.

The Police reunited for three concerts that benefited Amnesty International in 1986. Unlike the Beatles, there must have been enough esprit de corps there to occasionally get back together for the right reasons. In 1992 the band members reluctantly performed two songs at Sting’s wedding reception after being pressured to do so by the “A” List of guests. That led nowhere.

In March of 2003, The Police played several songs together during a ceremony for their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The event was broadcast on television. Unlike the charity concerts or spur of the moment wedding gig, the 2003 performance of the reunited band members gave fans reason to hope for more. It didn’t seem strained and even Sting said he was surprised at how easy it was for the guys to perform together again. That gig proved that the band members could play together and still have a good time. That gave fans a reason to hope for more, but in the end it was all up to one band member.

Sting hit it as big without The Police as he did with them. Anyone paying attention to radio, broadcast television or cable during the 1990’s could not escape him. The Soul Cages, Ten Summoner’s Tales, Bring On The Night and other albums brought the S man lots of attention, accolades and money. Few performers create the kind of musical presence that Sting does and that sells well.

I think the defining moment of his fame as a solo performer during the 1980s and 1990s came at one of his concerts. I happened to see a video filmed for some project about the S-man. After finishing the concert, Sting came back stage. It appeared that he had turned in a long performance and already done one or two encores. He looked thin, almost frail, couldn’t catch his breath, was bathed in sweat, had tight fitting clothes on and all but collapsed against a backstage wall. He was wearing at least four or five Cause Ribbons on his lapel and yet couldn’t get anyone to bring him a bottle of cold water. Sting had become a tool used by the entertainment industry as much as a Craftsman of it. Perhaps that is what brought him back to the band that started it all.

Sting says that he woke up one morning and thought that it was time for The Police to reunite. It may be that he was simply tired of constantly facing the music and everything that came with it all by himself. Even as the powerful front man of that legendary band, it wasn’t Sting and the Police. It was just The Police. As a fan, I always thought of the band as one entity, not one person. Maybe that was what Sting wanted after all his individual fame.

Most people probably think that Summers and Copeland were just sitting around waiting for the call from the S-man. Nothing could be further from the truth. Getting past the reality that both may have felt that ship had sailed along time ago, they have had lively and prosperous careers. Beyond his eighteen solo albums, Andy Summers started his career in 1965 and played with Eric Burden and The Animals, Zoot Money’s Big Roll Band, Dantalion’s Chariot and had many other successful collaborations and projects. Stewart Copeland is considered one of the world’s finest drummers and began his career in 1974. Beyond his work with bands like Curved Air, Animal Logic, Oyster Head and Klark Kent, Copeland has had an amazing number of collaborations and proven to be a prolific and very successful soundtrack composer. But just like Sting, it was The Police that probably brought them the kind of attention that lead to bigger and better things.

A press conference held at the famous Whiskey A-Go-Go in Los Angeles the morning after the Grammy Awards told the tale. The Police were back and ready to go on tour. The press event atmosphere was electric and featured Sting, Andy Summers and Stewart Copeland playing a set for reporters, invited guests and some lucky fans.

Reporters that were present seemed as surprised and shocked as fans. Most were in awe of what they were seeing, wondered if the reunion would last past the press event and seemed more interested in enjoying the spontaneous show than asking questions. Those that did ask questions kept it unusually light. While it could be that they were just burnt out from the Grammy’s, it was more likely that they weren’t use to dealing with a musically in your face band like The Police. Even Ozzy and his occasional reunions with Black Sabbath couldn’t create the kind of atmosphere The Police could.

Although the new album question is left unanswered at this writing and the future of the band past the tour remains unannounced, there is another question that I think fans would be interested in having answered. If arguments over the music and artistic differences broke them apart so many years ago, what really brought them back together? What made Sting suddenly decide the time was right. What made them all willing to face the same old arguments and pressures all over again? I’m guessing it was Synchronicity. Welcome back guys!

Bill Knell

9 comments - What do you think?
Posted by mark - July 3, 2015 at 3:19 am

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

Testimony of the Fathers

Part 2 of the Ante-Nicene Fathers series

Duration : 5 min 18 sec

Read more…

Be the first to comment - What do you think?
Posted by mark - June 1, 2015 at 8:07 am

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

A Brief History of the Big 4 Public Accounting Firms

Entering a Big 4 Firm is a lot like entering a secret society or fraternity.  There are traditions and secrets that are shared by the members and passed down to new recruits.  This feeling of comradery and heritage is one of the most special parts of working for a Big 4 firm and what separates the experience from working for a regional or local firm. 

As you begin your journey it will do you good to learn a bit of the history of these firms.  Knowing where these firms have been will help you understand the role that you will be taking on as a new recruit and the legacy you will continue. 

While you will most likely not be held responsible for this information in an interview, learning these basic facts will provide you with an easy way to impress the Big 4.

PricewaterhouseCoopers (aka PwC, “P Dubs”)

The history of PwC dates back to the 19th century London.  Samuel Lowell Price, the son of a Bristol stone potter, was born in 1821.  Entering the accounting profession at an early age, Price was a member of several smaller firms before striking out on his own as a sole practitioner. 

Meanwhile, a young English accountant, Edwin Waterhouse (b. 1841), was making a name for himself.  The son of lucrative mill-owning parents, and brother to Alfred Waterhouse, a prominent London architect, Edwin rose quickly in the ranks to the London accounting elite.

Around this time, another accountant by the name of William Cooper established a rival firm in London with his three brothers.  Across the ocean in the U.S., William Lybrand and others created yet another firm.  These firms merged in 1957 into what would be known as Coopers and Lybrand.

Price and Waterhouse joined forces in 1874 to create Price, Waterhouse & Co.  The firm became well-known as one of the finest in London and eventually opened their first U.S. office in 1890 in New York.  The firm began to establish separate partnerships across the globe.

In 1998 Coopers & Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse to form, PricewaterhouseCoopers.  The firm now employs over 146,000 people in 150 countries and had worldwide revenues of $28 billion in fiscal year 2008.

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (aka Deloitte, D&T, Deloitte & Touche)

Back to London….let’s meet William Welch Deloitte. Born in 1818, Deloitte was the grandson of Count de Loitte, an expatriate of France who left during the French Revolution.  Deloitte was a quick learner and began his career at the age of 15 in the bankruptcy courts of London.  Deloitte opened his own office at the age of 25 with a focus on the railway industry.  In fact, Deloitte was employed as the first external auditor EVER appointed and developed a system of safeguarding records to protect investors. 

Deloitte would go on to become president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants and open a U.S. practice in 1893. 

Sir George Alexander Touche (b. 1861), an accountant from, you guessed it…London, opened a practice in 1899.  He later spread the practice to New York, capitalizing on the growing demand for income tax preparation. 

Over the course of the 20th century, Deloitte and Touches’ separate firms merged with a number of other firms in various markets.  One of the key mergers was the combination of Touché Ross (as it was then known) and the Japanese firm, Tohmatsu Awoki & Co in 1975.

In 1989, the firm then known as Deloitte Haskins & Sells broke up.  The majority of the individual partnerships that had made up the firm, including the U.S. piece, merged with Touché Ross to form Deloitte & Touché.  Some of the smaller partnerships that were against the merger of Touché Ross merged with Coopers & Lybrand.  In 1993 the firm was renamed to Deloitte Touché Tohmatsu, due to the growing influence of the Japanese brand. 

The firm now employs over 165,000 people in 140 countries and had worldwide revenues of $27.4 billion in fiscal year 2008  

Ernst & Young (aka E&Y, EY)

As is the case with PwC and Deloitte, E&Y in its current state is a result of a series of mergers.  One difference with E&Y, however, is that the major players and namesakes of the firm are American rather than British.  In 1903 an accounting firm was formed in Cleveland by brothers Theodore and Alwin Ernst.  In 1906 the firm Arthur Young & Co. was established in Chicago.   These two firms individually joined forces with well-known British firms.  Ernst merged with Whinney Smith & Whinney and Young joined forces with Broads Patterson & Co.  In 1989, the successors of these firms merged to create what we now know as Ernst & Young.

The firm now employs over 137,000 people in worldwide and had revenues of $24.5 billion in fiscal year 2008    

KPMG (aka Klynveld, Peat, Marwick, Goerdeler)

By now I’m sure you can see a pattern here:  two or three dominant US and British firms join forces, go through a series of mergers and achieve world-wide status.  KPMG is no different.  The key information to note is the following:

Prominent British Founder – William Barclay Peat (b. 1852)

Key Mergers:

  • William Barclay Peat merge with Marwick Mitchell Co. (1911) to form Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co.
  • Thomson McLintock firm forms a group of independent European firms known as KMG (1979)
  • KMG and Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co. join forces in largest accounting firm merger to date to form KPMG (1987)
  • Renamed to KPMG Peat Marwick (1991)
  • Renamed back to KPMG (1995)

It is interesting to note that KPMG and E&Y were all but ready to merge in 1997 as a power play against the merger of Price Waterhouse and Coopers Lybrand.  However, this merger eventually fell through.

The firm now employs over 123,000 people in worldwide and had revenues of $19.8 billion in fiscal year 2008.

Phew….that is all for the history lesson.  The common theme here is that these firms are all founded by the best and the brightest of their time.  The accounting profession as we know it today would not be what it is without good old Sam Price, Billy Deloitte, Teddy Ernst and Bill Peat.  These men are the founding fathers of public accounting and it is their legacy you will continue when you join on of these great firms.  Their stories are a lesson in excellence and their influence is still felt to this day.

For more information on how to work for the Big 4, please visit

Big 4 Guru

Be the first to comment - What do you think?
Posted by mark - May 22, 2015 at 3:42 am

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

Importance of Romance Literature

Romance literature is very popular for the reasons that are very obvious. All people love to read romance and, the major reason is to keep them in tune with love. Many want to keep redefining love and, this is very vital. If you are a person who is seeking some romance literature entertainment, this is definitely your thing. The culture of reading is engrained in society and more and more book lovers are diving deep into romance books for the sheer pleasure and joy. The literature began being recorded by great romance authors of old ages. They were able to give their fictional account on romance. This was all inspired by reality and this continues to be the case. Most founding fathers of literature on romance were able to execute the love stories in a way that the reader was drawn in. They were able to set the pace as romance writing grew and became a huge industry. Today, some of the greatest romance writings are those that past authors brought forth. This is to say that romance and the idea of romance is timeless. Like wine, it gets better with age. Today, contemporary writers of romance have not disappointed the fans.

Romance literature is divided into many categories. There are novels, novellas, poems, short stories, plays and more. All romance literature has a way of impacting society. Love poems which were romantic are very popular when it comes to inspiring people on how to make their relationships even better. As a partner in a relationship, why not try saying a poem to your spouse about love. You will find that, no matter what the words are, it is going to make a positive impact in your life. Romance poems have been used to show love between partners successfully. In turn, people are able to express their love and affection in style and, in a more personal way. Novels and short stories on romance have been able to showcase what love and affection between two lovers is all about. Through the interesting characters, we are able to learn more about what to do when we want to be romantic. Like all other things in life, you have to read or study so that you can gain knowledge and information. Romance is basically the same.

Romance literature will be found in many books stores near you. You can also go online to find the books you are looking for. Online, you can also get to read literature on romance. With so many outlets of this kind of literature, you have no excuse not to read on romance. You will not only improve your love life, but, you will have more knowledge in this regard. Literature on romance will continue to take center stage as more and more people realize how important it is. It has the power to take us to the fictional world, as well as to history and the future. Therefore, we get to learn all the experiences of the past in regard to romance. We will be in a position to create something even more beautiful in the present. All thanks to the love literature.

Francis Githinji

23 comments - What do you think?
Posted by mark - May 2, 2015 at 5:25 pm

Categories: Founding Fathers   Tags:

Next Page »